Contents

1. Introduction
2. Synthesis of the Geology of Bolivia

2.1 The Bolivian Precambrian Shield
2.2 The Chaco-Beni Plains
2.3 The Bolivian Andean Orogen

2.3.1 The Subandean Zone
2.3.2 The Eastern Cordillera
2.3.3 The Altiplano
2.3.4 The Western Cordillera

3. Structural Geology and Lithostratigraphy of Bolivia

3.1 Structural Geology

3.1.1 Proterozoic
3.1.2 Phanerozoic

3.2 Stratigraphy

3.2.1 Lomas Manechis Granulitic Complex Superunit, Paleoproterozoic
3.2.2 Chiquitanía, Santa Rita, Río Fortuna and Aventura Metamorphic Complexes Superunit, Lower Mesoproterozoic
3.2.3 San Ignacio Schist Supergroup, Mid-Mesoproterozoic
3.2.4 Tacsara Supersequence, Upper Cambrian- Mid-Ordovician (Mid Caradocian)
3.2.5 Chuquisaca Supersequence, Mid/Upper Ordovician (Upper Caradocian) – Upper Devonian (Mid Famennian)
3.2.6 Villamontes Supersequence, Upper Devonian (Upper Famennian) – Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian)
3.2.7 Cuevo Supersequence, Mid/Upper Carboniferous (Pennsilvanian) – Lower Triassic
3.2.8 Serere Supersequence, Mid Triassic-Mid Jurassic
3.2.9 Puca A+B Supersequence: Upper Jurassic – Mid Cretaceous (Turonian)
3.2.10 Puca C Supersequence: Upper Cretaceous (Senonian) - Mid Paleocene
3.2.11 Corocoro Supersequence: Final-Recent Paleocene

4. Magmatism
5. Types of Metalliferous Mineral Deposits in Bolivia

5.1 “Bolivian-type” polymetallic veins

5.1.1 Tin porphyry deposits
• Llallagua
• Chorolque
5.1.2 Deposits associated with volcanic domes and/or subvolcanic stocks
• Cerro Rico de Potosí
• Oruro
• Colquechaca
• Maragua
• Porco
• MallKu Khota
• Colavi District
• Tasna
• Tatasi
• Animas, Siete Suyos y Gran Chocaya District
• Esmoraca – Galán District
5.1.3 Deposits hosted in sedimentary rocks
• Huanuni
• Cañadón Antequera Polymetallic District
• Bolivar
• Avicaya
• San Vicente
• Monserrat
• Japo-Santa Fe-Morococala District
• Matilde
• Independencia District
5.1.4 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of the Bolivian-type Polymetallic veins

5.2 Pluton-associated polymetallic vein deposits
• Cascabel-Muñecas Province
• Chacaltaya-Huayna Potosí Tin District
• Kellhuani deposit
• La Solución deposit
• Illimani District
• Himalaya deposit
• Rosario de Araca-Laramcota Province
• La Chojlla deposit
• Chambillaya deposit
• Colquiri District

5.2.1 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of the Pluton-associated
polymetallic vein deposits

5.3 Orogenic gold (±antimony) deposits

5.3.1 Slate belt-hosted Orogenic gold (±antimony) ore deposits
• Yani-Aucapata Gold District
• Apolobamba Gold District
• Oruro-Challapata Gold District
• San Bernardino deposit
• Iroco (Kori Chaka) deposit
• Vinto prospect
• Amayapampa gold-antimony District & prospect
• Cajuata District
• Los Machos deposit
• Cocapata District
• El Molino-Choquecamata prospect
• Carma prospect
• Caracota District
• Chilcobija-Candelaria Antimony District

5.3.1.1 Characteristics of and Conceptual Model for slate belt-hosted orogenic gold (±antimony) deposits (Fig. 5.30)

5.3.2 BIF-hosted and fault-related orogenic gold prospects/deposits

5.3.2.1 BIF-hosted orogenic gold
• Puquio Norte

5.3.2.1.1 Characteristics of BIF-hosted orogenic gold deposits

5.3.2.2 Fault-related orogenic gold
• San Simón deposit

5.3.2.2.1 Characteristics of fault-related orogenic gold deposits

5.4 Epithermal Deposits

5.4.1 Intermediate Sulfi dation Epithermal deposits
• Berenguela Polymetallic District
• Orkho Piña prospect
• Carangas Silver District
• Salinas de Garci-Mendoza District
• Pulacayo deposit
• San Cristóbal deposit
• San Antonio de Lípez District
• Jaquegua prospect
5.4.2 High Sulfi dation Epithermal deposits
• Laurani deposit
• La Española prospect
5.4.3 Transitional deposits
• Kori Kollo
• Lipeña-Lamosa prospect
5.4.4 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of the Epithermal ore deposits

5.5 Red-bed copper
• Corocoro deposit
• Cuprita deposit
• Red-bed copper in the Lípez region

5.5.1 Characteristics of the red-bed copper deposits

5.6 Sedimentary rock-hosted zinc-lead (silver) veins

5.6.1 Western Corridor
• Toropalca-Cornaca District
• Tupiza-Suipacha District
• Mojo-Villazón District
5.6.2 Eastern Corridor
• San Lucas District
• Huara Huara District
5.6.3 Characteristics of the sedimentary rock-hosted zinc-lead (silver) veins

5.7 Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) deposits
• Don Mario

5.7.1 Characteristics of the Iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits

5.8 Sedimentary Exhalative (SEDEX) Pb-Zn prospects
• Tucavaca Basin

5.8.1 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of the Sedimentary Exhalative “SEDEX” Pb-Zn prospects

5.9 Banded Iron Formation (BIF) hosted iron ores
• El Mutún

5.9.1 Characteristics of Banded Iron Formation (BIF) hosted iron ores

5.10 Volcanogenic Massive Sulfi de (VMS) Cu-Zn-Au-(Pb) deposits
• Miguela

5.10.1 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of Volcanogenic Massivefi de (VMS) Cu-Zn-Au-(Pb) deposits

5.11 Ultramafi c and mafi c intrusion-related Ni and PGE deposits
• Rincón del Tigre Complex

5.11.1 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of Ultramafi c and Mafi c Intrusion-related Ni and PGE deposits

5.12 Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) deposits
• The Tucavaca Basin, Precambrian
• The Cuevo Basin, Subandean

5.12.1 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) deposits

5.13 Placer gold deposits
Alluvial gold deposits

5.13.1 Characteristics of alluvial gold deposits
Fluvioglacial gold deposits

5.14 Other types of deposit

5.14.1 Lovozero-type rare metal (Nb, Ta and REE) deposits
5.14.2 Evaporitic deposits
5.14.3 Precious and Semi-precious stone deposits
5.14.4 Pegmatite deposits
5.14.5 Sulfur deposits

6. General Metallogeny

6.1 Precambrian Shield

6.1.1 The Paraguá Craton Auro-manganesiferous Belt
6.1.2 The Sunsás Polymetallic Belt
6.1.3 The Mutún-Tucavaca Ferro-manganesiferous Belt

6.2 The Chaco-Beni Plains

6.2.1 The Amazon Gold Basin

6.3 The Central Andes

6.3.1 The Polymetallic Belt of the Altiplano and Western Cordillera
6.3.2 The Tin Belt
6.3.3 The Gold-antimony Belt
6.3.4 The Lead-Zinc Belt

7. Metalliferous resources of Bolivia

7.1 Western Cordillera
7.2 Altiplano

7.2.1 Northern and Central Altiplano
7.2.2 Southern Altiplano

7.3 Eastern Cordillera

7.3.1 Northern Segment
7.3.2 Central Segment
7.3.3 Southern Segment

7.4 Subandean
7.5 The Chaco-Beni Plains
7.6 Precambrian Shield
7.7 Mineral Production, Mining Projects and Estimate of the Metalliferous Resources in Bolivia
7.8 Trends in prices of the main metals that Bolivia produces

7.8.1 Productions vs. Prices of main metals produced in Bolivia between 1980-2008

8. Synopsis

8.1 Distribution of provinces, districts, and ore deposits in Bolivia
8.2 Discovery of ore deposits
8.3 Historical Framework
8.4 Deposit Types
8.5 Metalliferous Resource Potential of Bolivia

9. References
Appendices
1. Mineral Resource Estimate of ore deposits in the Physiographuc Provinces of Bolivia.
2. Main mines and prospects for Sn, Ag, Au, Zn, Pb, Sb, W, Cu and Bi in Bolivia.
3. Historical Review of the Mining and Mineral exploration in Bolivia.
Index

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